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When waves pass through a narrow gap, they spread out. This spreading out is called diffraction.

Electromotive Force & Internal Resistance

When a charge passes through the power supply, it gains electrical energy. The power supply is said to have an electromotive force, or emf. Electromotive force is measured in volts.

Energy & Power In Circuits

Consider the circuit shown below: The battery gives the charges potential energy. In the bulb, electrical energy is transferred to thermal energy and then radiated. 

Energy Levels & Photon Emission

When white light from a tungsten filament is passed through a prism, the light is dispersed into its component colour. The band of different colours is called a continuous spectrum.

Hooke’s Law

There is one common property behind stretching of a spring and rubber band that come back to their original shape. The property that allows any material to regain its shape is called elasticity.


If two or more waves collide, they are said to interfere. Interference is a property of waves. In this article, how interference occurs in different types of waves is explained.

Longitudinal & Transverse Waves

Wave motion is a means of moving energy from place to place. For example: the electromagnetic waves from the sun carry the energy to the Earth for the survival of living things. 


When a force acts on an object, the force may cause an object to move in a straight line. It could also cause the object to spin or turn. This turning effect of a force is called the moment of the force.

Motion Along A Straight Line

In any scientific experiment that involves moving objects, motion of the objects is defined by various parameters such as speed, velocity and acceleration. It is imperative to learn the meaning of these terms and the relationship between these terms.

Newton’s Laws Of Motion

Newton’s laws of motion are three physical laws that describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces.